Examples include Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi, Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955) directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Aan (1952) directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar.
These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India, particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.
This work provides an overview of past and current paleomonsoon research on tectonic to interannual time scales with a primary focus on marine sediment records.
The Asian monsoon is comprised of the Indian and East Asian subsystems.
These two components are linked to one another in varying degrees by regions of strong sensible heating (Indo-Asian landmass) and strong latent heat export (the Western Pacific Warm Pool and the southern subtropical Indian Ocean).
The term "Bollywood" itself has origins in the 1970s, when India overtook the United States as the world's largest film producer.
Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna, There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming.Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, which it lost by a single vote.